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Sarajevo

Sarajevo

Welcome to my site about Sarajevo.

11.02.2006.

Stari Grad!!

Stari Grad is the oldest and most historically significant part of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At its heart is the Baščaršija, the old town xafs sector where the city was founded by the Ottomans in the 15th century.

The municipality of Stari Grad is characterized by its many religious structures, and examples of unique Bosnian architecture. The eastern half of Stari Grad consists of the Ottoman influenced sectors of the city, while the western half showcases an architecture and culture that arrived with Austria-Hungary, symbolically representing the city as a meeting place between East and West.

The population of Stari Grad is slightly above 250,000, making it the least populous of Sarajevo's four municipalities. Its population density of 742.5 inhabitants per km² also ranks it last among four. Stari Grad contains numerous hotels and tourist attractions including the Old Serbian Orthodox church, Gazi Husrev-Beg Mosque, Tzar's Mosque, and the Sarajevo Cathedral.

11.02.2006.

Novo Sarajevo!!!

Novo Sarajevo (English translation New Sarajevo) is a municipality of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Like Novi Grad, Novo Sarajevo is a product of the city's massive growth and development in the 1960s and 1970s. It is located in the middle of the Sarajevo field, predominantly on the northern bank of the Miljacka, between Novi Grad and Centar.

According to the 2002 government census, today Novo Sarajevo municipality has 74,493 residents, of which 49,273 are Bosniaks (66.1%), 11,511 are Serbs (15.5%), 9,553 are Croats (12.8%), and 4,156 are classified as others (5.6%).

Prior to the siege, Novo Sarajevo had some 95,089 citizens, of which 32,899 were Serbs and 33,902 Bosniaks. Prior to the siege Novo Sarajevo had some 47.15km². Following the Siege of Sarajevo, 75% of the area was transferred to the Republika Srpska, leaving Novo Sarajevo municipality with 11.43km². As a result, Novo Sarajevo has the highest number of people per km², some 7524.

Novo Sarajevo is known as something of the commercial and business center of Sarajevo, housing many of the city's major companies and corporations. The famous Sarajevo Holiday Inn hotel is to be found in the Novo Sarajevo as well, along with the National Museum of History.

External links

11.02.2006.

Novi Grad!!!

Novi Grad (translated New Town) is the westernmost of the four municipalities that make up the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

During the 1970s, Sarajevo was undergoing a rapid economic and cultural development, with great expansion focused on population and industry. Novi Grad was a direct result of this period of heavy growth, in which many acres of previously unused land were transformed into Communist urban centres filled with apartment buildings. By the time the Novi Grad municipality was formally recognized, it had some 60,000 citizens, in 18 neighbourhoods.

According to the 1991 census, the municipality of Novi Grad had 136,746 citizens. Four years of warfare brought that number down tremendously. Some sections of Novi Grad were among the first to be occupied by the aggressors, while the city was repeatedly showered by mortar shells. Of the municipality's 33,517 residential buildings, 92% were damaged during the fighting.

Novi Grad has since made a fantastic recovery. Although many bullet holes and mortar shell impacts are visible throughout the municipality, it is overall healthy and functioning. As the most modern part of Sarajevo, Novi Grad is also ground to many new developments, such as the Bosmal city centar.

According to the 2002 census, today the municipality of Novi Grad has 116,588 citizens, of which 93,551 are Bosniaks (80.2%), 13,134 are Serbs (11.3%), 7,311 are Croats (6.3%), and 2,592 are classified as others (2.2%).

11.02.2006.

Muncipalitys of Sarajevo

Centar (translated Center) is a municipality of central Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located between the older parts of the city under Stari Grad, and the newer more modern parts of the city under the municipalities Novi Grad and Novo Sarajevo.

The Centar municipality, according to the government website, is the administrative, business, commercial, cultural, educational, and medical centre of Sarajevo. Although some of these may be disputed, Centar is certainly the most important part of Sarajevo, housing most major branches of the city and national governments.

The municipality of Centar occupies 3,313 hectrates of land, of which close to 17% is housing. The amount of private and state owned land is nearly equal, with 1600 and 1713 hectrates respectively. The municipality celebrates May 2nd as "Centar Municipality Day", in commemoration of the heroic defense by citizens of the aggressor's assault on the Presidency building of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Centar is also home to many Olympic complexes such as City Hall Skenderija and sports-complex Koševo-Zetra.

The Siege of Sarajevo had a tremendous effect on Centar. Prior to the aggression, Centar municipality had 79,000 citizens, of which the majority were Bosniaks. 7000 citizens of the municipality were killed by the aggressors during the war, as major battles took place on its grounds. There was also a heavy presence of land mines in the area, however in December 2003 the government succeeded in clearing all land mines from the area. Since the end of the war, the municipality has received 12 major awards, indicating its current well-being and prosperity.

According to government statistics from 2002, today Centar municipality has some 68,151 citizens, of which 76.5% are Bosniaks, 13.1% are Serbs, 7% are Croats and 3.4% are others.

09.02.2006.

Divisions of Sarajevo!!

Sarajevo, the city and surrounding region, are split into several divisions themselves. These can be official or unofficial, with or without actual political power.

The most important division of the City of Sarajevo are its four Municipalities. Municipalities are the fourth level of political authority in Bosnia and Herzegovina after state, entity, and canton. The Bosnian word for them is "Općina". They are, Centar (Center), Novi Grad (New City), Novo Sarajevo (New Sarajevo), and Stari Grad (Old Town).

Like the city at large, all of the Municipalities have their own regional government, including a foreman, councils, and various Municipality services. The role of these Municipality governments is not as significant as that of other Municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina due to the existence of the Sarajevo city government.

Sarajevo's Municipalities are further split into "local communities" (Bosnian, Mjesne zajednice). Local communities have a small role in city government and are intended as a way for ordinary citizens to get involved in city government. They are based around key city neighborhoods.

Sarajevo also has several suburbs. They are essentially the 5 Municipalities of Canton Sarajevo that are not included in Sarajevo's official city limits. They are, in alphabetical order, Hadžići, Ilidža, Ilijaš, Trnovo, and Vogošća. Of these the cities of Ilidža and Vogošća, found in the Municipalities of the same name, can be considered the most important.

Ilidža is the chief suburb of Sarajevo, located just west of Novi Grad Municipality. According to the latest estimates, Ilidža's population is slightly under 50,000. Sarajevo International Airport is found next to the city. The secondary suburb, Vogošća is located about 6 kilometers north of the city center and has a population of around 9,000. Vogošća has traditionally been an important industrial center.

09.02.2006.

Communications and media

As the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo is naturally the main center of the country's media. Most of the country's major television channels are based in the city, as are the most popular newspapers and magazines.

Newspapers are the most popular and most well established forms of media. The two most popular and credible daily newspapers are the Oslobođenje and the Dnevni Avaz, The buildings of both of these are adjacent to each other, situated in Novi Grad municipality, making the spot the center of the Bosnian media world.

The Dnevni Avaz (the Daily Avaz) is today the more succesfull of the two. It was claimed to have ties with the powerful Party of Democratic Action, which some take to explain its success. Later however it shifted its supported among the other parties. The Oslobođenje is the older and more well known of the two. Meaning "The Liberation", it was established in Sarajevo following World War II as the communist party's newspaper. Oslobodenje preserved somewhat leftist views.

As well as professional newspapers, Sarajevo is also home to a variety of magazines and political tabloids, such as Slobodna Bosna, Dani, and Walter, all of which have a high circulation.

Television is very popular in Sarajevo, even though for most people the number of channels is somewhat limited. Satellites allow for a number of foreign channels to be watched, but the most popular are the local news stations based in the city. FTV is the television of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, while there is also a national radio-television system named Public Broadcast Service of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A Sarajevo Cantonal channel is also available.

After the government affiliated channels there are several other television stations, perhaps the most prominent being NTV Hayat (Independent Television Hayat). Another is the Open Broadcast Network, a television station founded by the international community, now privately owned. Television stations from Croatia are also available, as is Serbian Eastern European media giant RTV Pink, with Pink BH Company, the local branch based in Bijeljina.

Many small independent radio stations exist, although the majority listen to the more established ones such as Radio M, Radio Grad, eFM Student Radio and RSG. RSG, Radio Stari Grad (Radio Old Town) is the most popular of these. Radio Free Europe can still be heard, and several American and West European stations are available for listening as well. Also popular is Radio 202, affiliated with FTV.

09.02.2006.

Economics

Sarajevo is economically one of the strongest regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Like many other major cities, its economy is largely based on industries such as manufacturing and tourism. As the center of various levels of area politics, many Sarajevo citizens also work in government. A number of local and international companies are present in the city and contribute to its economic health.

Overview

Sarajevo's economy reached its peak in the 1980s, thanks in large part to the culmination of several decades of industrial development and a tourist boom following the Olympics, as well as increased international investment. During the Siege of Sarajevo, the Bosnian Serb forces often targeted structures key to the city’s economic health, including the headquarters of companies and many services and public utilities. Since then, the Sarajevo economy has made tremendous progress, significantly better than its post-war state in 1996.

Sarajevo's manufacturing deals with a wide array of products. This includes production of Foods and Beverages, textiles, furniture, automobiles, pharmaceuticals, and metalworking. Sarajevo companies also produce unique brands of alcohol, and cigarettes.

According to Sarajevo Canton statistics, the greater Sarajevo area in 2002 had a work force of 278,341. 86,012 (30.6%) of these are, on average, actually employed. Of these 86,012, some 37,253, or 43,3%, are women. The largest number of people are employed in industry (19.4%), trade (12.9%), transport (9.9%),and education (8.7%). The largest concentratoin of jobs is in Centar municipality (34.5%),and Novo Sarajevo (20.8%).

In 2002 the total export for the greater Sarajevo region was worth about 259,569,000KM. This was an increase of 21.9% from the previous year. Most of Sarajevo's exports (28.2%) head to Germany, with Great Britain following behind at 16.8% and Serbia and Montenegro thirds with 12.8%. The largest amount of imported goods come from Germany, at 15.8%. With a worth of total import at about 1,322,585,000KM, the total import is almos 5.1 times the total export.

A variety of important economic institutions are to be found in Sarajevo. The central bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina is found in the city, as are numerous other independent banks. Overall 19 different banks have their headquarters in Sarajevo. The city also holds the Sarajevo Exchange of securities, Institute for accounting and auditing of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Board for valuable papers of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Register of valuable papers of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Foreign companies with a foothold in the Sarajevo region include Harris Communications, Brown & Root, and, most notably, Coca Cola. The Bosnian-Malaysian firm Bosmal is also situated in the city.
On picture is Coca Cola factory in Sarajevo.

09.02.2006.

Here is something about Sarajevo's demographics and population.

Since no official census has been taken since 1991, the precise population of Sarajevo cannot be known for certain. However the latest estimates from the Sarajevo Canton government, dating from December 2002 are generally thought to be fairly accurate. They put the total population of the city of Sarajevo at 297,399 residents and the number of people in the greater Sarajevo region at 401,118. A more recent unofficial estimate has the population of Sarajevo in late 2003 at 412,526.

According to the official government statistics, Sarajevo's population density is 2470.1 per square kilometer. The most densely populated part of Sarajevo is in the municipality Novo Sarajevo (7524.5 inhabitants per square kilometer), while the least densely populated is Stari Grad municipality (742.5 inhabitants per square kilometer).

Regarding the age structure of Sarajevo, the overwhelming majority of people are between 15 and 64 years of age. This group consists of 208,703 people, or a little over 70% of the total city population. When it comes to people 14 years of age or under and people over 65 years of age, the youth have a slight edge. There are 47,558 people under 14 years of age in Sarajevo, making up 16% of the overall population, compared to 41,138 people over 65 years of age who make up 13.8% of the total population. Novi Grad municipality has the highest percentage of citizens under 14 years of age in the city, at 17.4%, while 17.5% of Novo Sarajevo municipality's population is over 65 years of age. Overall, the city's population is slightly older than its surrounding areas or the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a whole.

The biggest ethnic group in Sarajevo are the Bosniaks, who with more than 230,000 people make up 77.4% of the city. They are followed by the Serbs, of which there are some 35,000 (12% of the city), and Croats with a population of 22,380 (7.5% of the total population). 9,283 people (3.1% of overall population) are classified as others. They most likely consist of Sephardi Jews, and Roma, along with a small number of foreign workers (Mostly of Chinese and African backgrounds).

The city's birth rate is 9.17 while the mortality is 8.10, resulting in a population growth rate of 1.07%. The greater Sarajevo area meanwhile has a 9.56 birth rate and 8.01 mortality rate, which makes for a population growth rate of about 1.55%. This would indicate a population of 303,797 in the city by December 2004, and a population of 413,649 in the metropolitan area. If current growth trends continue, the city's population should reach the pre-war population in less than 25 years. The metro area would do the same a bit sooner, in some 15 years. Depending on regional stability, immigration, and growth and development, it is not unreasonable to except the city's population to breach 1,000,000 inhabitants by the latter half of the 21st century.

08.02.2006.

Tourism!!

Tourism is one of Sarajevo's major industries, and is constantly growing now with stability in the region. Sarajevo's mountain ranges and Olympic facilities make it an ideal location for winter sports. Another reason for Sarajevo's popularity among tourists is its 600 years of accumulated history, which have been impacted by both Western and Eastern empires.

Ever since the 1984 Winter Olympics, Sarajevo has been a popular tourist attraction (save for the war years in the early 1990s). Indeed, even long before that Sarajevo was a popular stop for travelers in the Ottoman and Austria-Hungarian empires, and is mentioned in traveling books from all sides of Europe and the Middle East. One of the first structures built in the city was an inn.

Sarajevo overall has some 50 major hotels, along with numerous smaller motels and hospitality businesses. A variety of travel agencies in the city can help organize a visit. The most famous hotel in Sarajevo is the Holiday Inn, whose distinctive color and location has made it something of a city icon.

Various types of tourism are popular in Sarajevo. War tourism focuses on the war years, and the famous spots of the siege of Sarajevo. Some are interested specifically in the historical aspects of the city, while thousands come for the area's nature.

Summer is the busiest season for Sarajevo tourism, as thousands of tourists visit from foreign countries. Many of these are from the neighboring Balkan states, while a very large number are former residents who fled the city during the war.

Sarajevo is full of interesting and notable structures that tourists find attractive. Some notable examples include the mountains Igman and Bjelašnica, Vrelo Bosne park, the Sarajevo cathedral, and the Gazi Husrev-Beg Mosque among others (See also: Sites of interest in Sarajevo).

08.02.2006.

People in Sarajevo

The people of Sarajevo are known as “Sarayliyas” (spelled Sarajlije in local languages). Sarayliyas are known for being very proud and patriotic of their city. The song by popular singer Kemal Monteno, “Sarajevo Ljubavi Moja” (Sarajevo Love of Mine) has come to somewhat epitomize this feeling among the people, and to this day remains something of an unofficial anthem for the city (alongside with "Kad ja pođoh na Benbašu").

If one were to describe the stereotypes of Sarayliyas in one word, it would be cosmopolitan. Sarayliyas are known for being modern cultured city dwellers. Bosnians from outside Sarajevo are thought to have the sense that Sarajevo receives too much attention, but this is more of a sibling rivalry than an actual dislike for Sarajevo and its people. Within the city itself, the people of the various Municipalities have somewhat taken up the stereotypes of the regions they live in. Sarajevo is also known for having a very communal feel, despite its large population.

Sarajevo has had a number of famous citizens over the years (see also: Famous Sarayliyas). They include an Academy Award winner, two Nobel Prize winners, legendary musicians, novelists, and politicians. Sarajevo has also produced presidents for three countries.

08.02.2006.

Transportation!

Geographic and historical factors have combined to make Sarajevo a very small city for its population. Due to this and a lack of parking structures, it is very difficult to find places for parking. This is especially true in the summer months when the number of people in Sarajevo is significantly higher due to the number of tourists. Sarajevo makes up for this with its traditional old world city planning, which allows for pedestrians to easily walk to wherever they need to go. Bicycling is also practiced, but is not very common.

Public transportation is very common and has a long tradition in Sarajevo. The chief methods of this are tramways, trolleys, and buses. Tramways in fact, were first introduced to Europe in Sarajevo in 1894 by Austro-Hungarian officials. The Sarajevo tramway is 16 kilometers long.

Overall in Sarajevo there are 7 tramway lines, 4 trolley lines, and 9 bus routes. Most of these run east-west, and are found on the northern bank of the Miljacka. These disproportions however are merely due to the city's layout and practical reasons. During the last years of Yugoslavia, a subway was planned as well but never implemented.
The railroad has always been very important in Sarajevo. The main Sarajevo railroad station is located in the north central part of the city. From there railroad tracks head west before branching off in different directions. The railroad for years was crucial to the industry of the part of town it ran through. This has left a lasting impression on the region, ranging from stereotypes to soccer teams. Historically, Sarajevo was a very important center of the railroad industry in Southeastern Europe, although it has been greatly hurt by the war.
Sarajevo International Airport (intl. code SJJ) is located just a few kilometers southwest of the city. During the war the airport was used for United Nations flights and humanitarian relief. Since the Dayton Accord in 1996, the airport has welcomed a thriving commercial flight business which inlcudes flights by B&H Airlines, Austrian Airlines, Alitalia, Aero Flight, Lufthansa, Jat Airways, and others.

The two main streets within Sarajevo are "Titova" (Tito's) street and "Zmaj od Bosne" (Dragon of Bosnia) street. Most traffic out of the city is directed to the west, as that is where most important cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina are located. Also, the Republika Sprska is directly to the east, and most people have little desire to go there. A highway that connects Sarajevo with Budapest and central Europe is being modernized, but presently it is at some spots little more than a paved countryside road. The speed limit at most parts is 60 or 80 km/h.

08.02.2006.

Sport

One of the most famous things about Sarajevo is that it was the location of the 1984 Winter Olympics. However, sports and sporting events played an important part in Sarajevo life well before the city hosted the games. For instance, one of the city's best-loved sports is football. The two best football clubs, FK Sarajevo and NK Željezničar, both have a long tradition of competing in European and international cups and tournaments. There are also football clubs in Sarajevo like for example FK Olimpik and others but these clubs are less famous and don't have as long and proud traditions.

Another is basketball. The basketball club KK Bosna Sarajevo won the European championship in 1979. The chess club Bosna Sarajevo has been a championship team since the 1980s. Sarajevo often holds international events and competitions in various other sports as well, such as tennis and kickboxing.

In 2009, Sarajevo will host the Special Olympic winter games.

08.02.2006.

Education

Education has a long tradition in Sarajevo. The first university in Sarajevo was a school of Sufi philosophy established by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1531. Over the years, numerous other religious schools were established as well. The Sarajevo library, in its prime, was in the same category as the Madrassa of Beyazid II. The annexation of Bosnia by Austria-Hungary introduced Sarajevo to Western education.

The first high school in Sarajevo was established in 1887. Starting in the 1940s, numerous modern faculties were added to the University of Sarajevo for a wide variety of professions ranging from economics to forestry. Sarajevo today also has 46 elementary schools (Grades 1-8), and 19 high schools (Grades 9-12). The University of Sarajevo includes faculties for medicine, law, agriculture, technical services, philosophy, and economics.
On picture is electrician high school

08.02.2006.

Culture

Sarajevo’s culture is represented in various ways. Numerous cultural festivals occur every year, such as the Bašćaršija Nights, Sarajevo Winter Festival, and the Sarajevo Jazz Festival. Numerous theatres are present in Sarajevo as well, such as the National Theatre of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first ever Bosnian opera was held in Sarajevo in 2003. Historically, Sarajevo was home to several famous Bosnian poets and thinkers during the times of the Ottoman Empire. Nobel Prize winners Ivo Andrić and Vladimir Prelog are from the city, as was academy award winning director Danis Tanović.

Sarajevo is also home to the Sarajevo Haggadah, one of the oldest surviving such texts, originating from the 14th century and brought by Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition. As of late, modern art has flourished in the city as well.

Sarajevo is home to a number of cultural institutions, dedicated to upkeeping the city's culture. The notable Bosniak institute is housed in an impressive building in central Sarajevo, and features various interesting exhibits dealing with the city's and country's culture and history. Also notable are the International Center for Kids and Youth in New Sarajevo, and the Center for Sarajevo Culture.

Theatres are also an important part of Sarajevo culture. The first great Sarajevo theatre was the national theatre of Bosnia and Herzegovina, built in 1919 and surviving to this day. Prior to that, plays were often held in parks or at the large houses of wealthy families. The first Bosnian opera was held in Sarajevo in 2003. Sarajevo also houses the Sarajevo Youth Theatre.

The most famous in all of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, is located in central Sarajevo. It was established in 1888, from an idea dating back to the first half of the 19th century. The Sarajevo Haggadah is held there. While in Sarajevo one can also visit the Ars Aevi Museum of Contemporary Art, the Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Museum of the City of Sarajevo, and the Bosnian and Herzegovinian Museum of Literature. There existed an impressive Olympic museum dedicated to the 84 games but it was destroyed in the warfare.
Sarajevo also holds many of the most famous historical texts in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They were largely held in the Sarajevo City (and University) Library, that was built in 1896. Unfortunately Serbian ultranationalists purposely fired upon the building with incendiary shells. They succeeded in setting the building on fire, and along with it thousands of irreplaceable text. Today an international effort is underway to replace what was lost.

In Ottoman times, the Gazi Husrev-beg library was one of the largest and greatest in the Balkans. Destroyed since, it is currently being rebuilt in a stunning modern form that will house many of the oldest texts found in the city.

An interesting aspect of the city's culture is its rich musical history. Many regard it as the most musically influental city in the Balkans, especially during the 20th century. "Kad ja pođoh na Benbašu", is a great example of traditional Bosnian music, and is one of the city's unofficial anthems.

During the second half of the 20th century, Sarajevo was the center of Yugoslav pop and rock music. Some of the bands from the Sarajevo school of pop rock, such as Bijelo Dugme and Indeksi, are arguably the greatest Yugoslav rock bands of all time but are only the tip of the iceberg. After them come a wide array of other bands and performers considered "greats" and "legends", such as Crvena Jabuka, Plavi Orkestar, Zabranjeno Pušenje, and others. Solo artists such as Kemal Monteno and Dino Merlin also gained much prominence. Monteno's song, "Sarajevo Ljubavi Moja" (Sarajevo Love of Mine), is another unofficial anthem of Sarajevo.

The Sarajevo Film Festival has been going on since 1995 and has become the premier film festival in the Balkans. Largely due to its size and the success and popularity of cinema in Bosnia, the event has gained considerable importance and often attracts foreign celebrities. The Sarajevo Winter Festival is also well-known, as are the Bašćaršija Nights, a month-long showcase of local culture, music, and dance.

The city is also present internationally in various forms of pop culture. The film "Welcome to Sarajevo" was released in 1997. Irish rock band U2 had a hit song with Miss Sarajevo, and progressive metal group Savatage's 1995 Concept Album "Dead Winter Dead" deals with the story of Sarajevo's Romeo and Juliet. Sarajevo is also the name of a jam Band from East Windsor, New Jersey.

08.02.2006.

Politics or Goverment.

Somethnig about Sarajevo's politics.
In terms of politics, Sarajevo is the most important city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the capital of the entire country, as well as the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina sub-entity. Sarajevo is also the obvious center of politics for the Sarajevo Canton. It is comprised of four different municipalities and is one of the few cities in the country with a separate city government. Sarajevo is the location of numerous other important political structures, such as dozens of foreign embassies. City government is split into the traditional three branches of democratic government.

Executive branch

The city government’s executive branch (Bosnian:"Gradska Uprava") consists of the mayor, his cabinet, and numerous city organizations that help in the governing of the city. The mayor is the chief of city politics, and has two deputies, along with a number of advisers in the cabinet. The role of the executive branch in city government is outlined in the city constitution.

The current mayor of Sarajevo is Muhidin Hamamdžić, from the Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city deputy mayors are Željko Komšić and Slavo Vlaški, who belong to the Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina and the SDP respectively. They are joined by a secretary and a number of advisors.

To help the mayor carry out the executive duties of the city, the executive branch also consists of several city services, or "organizations". They are the "City Service for General Management" (Gradska služba za opću upravu), "City Service for the Finances" (Gradska služba finansija), "City Service for Local Employment" (Gradska služba za lokalno poslovanje), "City Service for Urban Planning" (Gradska služba za urbano planiranje), and the "City Service for Communal Works" (Gradska služba za komunalne poslove).

Legislative branch

The main legislative body of the city of Sarajevo is the Gradsko Vijeće, or City Council.

Councilmen are elected by municipality according to population, with Novi Grad municipality receiving the most seats in the city council and Stari Grad municipality the least. The council is headed by the council speaker, two deputies, and a secretary, and consists of 24 members.

Currently, of these 28, 15 belong to the SDP, 7 to Za BiH, 5 to SDA, and 1 to the HDZ. The president of the City Council is Mira Jadrić-Winterhalter, and deputies are Emin Svrakić and Vladimir Zubić.

Judicial branch

As the center of Canton Sarajevo, the city is also the center of judicial procedures for the area, based on the post-transitional judicial system for the country as outlined by the High Representative and his plans for the “High Judicial and Prosecutorial Councils” of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2002. The BiH Constitutional Court is also located in Sarajevo, consisting of nine members. Four of these are selected by the house of representatives of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, two by Republika Srpska's national assembly, and three foreign members are selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights. The supreme court of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Cantonal court of Sarajevo Canton are also located in Sarajevo. Sarajevo is also the center of law training and education for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

08.02.2006.

Climate

Not to forget climate facts of Sarajevo.They are very important because of specific climate that Sarajevo has.On picture is mountain Bjelasnica.
Sarajevo has a continental climate, lying between the climate zones of central Europe to the North and the Mediterranean to the South. Sarajevo experiences warm summers, with temperatures of 35 °C (95 °F) not being uncommon, and cold winters, when snow is guaranteed due to the city's high altitude. Sarajevo has three major weather stations. They are located on Bjelašnica mountain, Butmir, and in the city itself.

The warmest month of the year is July, when the average temperature is about 19 °C (66 °F), although August's average temperature is only a degree lower. The coldest month of the year is January when the average temperature is -1 °C (30 °F). The average year-round temperature is 10 °C (45 °F).

Sarajevo receives about 905 mm (36 inches) of precipitation a year. The rainiest month is October when the city receives 89.4 mm (3.5 in) of rainfall. The dryest is February when the city gets only 61.4 mm (2.4 in) of precipitation. Average air pressure at the city's elevation is 942.3 millibars, and this varies little throughout the year.

08.02.2006.

Geography

Here are some geographical facts about Sarajevo.
Sarajevo is located close to the geometric center of the triangularly-shaped Bosnia and Herzegovina, and covers some 142 km²(88.2 mi²) of land. The core of the city is built in the Sarajevo valley (Also translated as Sarajevo field), a small depression 500 meters above sea level nestled in between the surrounding mountains. Although much of the city itself is relatively flat, some of the outskirts and far eastern parts are hilly. Neighborhoods in the old town in particular are well known for their steep streets and landscape.

The river Miljacka flows through the city from east to west and is one of the city's chief geographic features. The source of the river Bosna, Vrelo Bosne is found on the city's outskirts near Ilidža and is one of the most well known natural landmarks in the country.

The city is surrounded by five major mountains. They are part of the Dinaric Alps mountain range that winds through Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro. The mountains are popular tourist attractions for hiking and skiing. In alphabetical order they are:

* Bjelašnica: 2067 meters (6782 ft), southwest
* Igman: 1502 meters (4928 ft), southwest
* Jahorina: 1913 meters (6276 ft), southeast
* Trebević: 1627 meters (5338 ft), southeast
* Treskavica: 2088 meters (6950 ft), north

Sarajevo itself is part of Bosnia proper, known for its mountainous and heavily forested landscape. Natural disasters pose little threat in the region, although small earthquakes have been known to occur.

08.02.2006.

History of Sarajevo!!

Here are the most important facts about Sarajevo's history.
On the left you can see a drawing of Franz Ferdinand!!
Ancient times!!
Archeologists can safely say that the Sarajevo region has been continuously inhabited by humans since the Neolithic age. The most famous example of a Neolithic settlement in the Sarajevo area is that of the Butmir culture. The discoveries at Butmir were made on the grounds of modern day Sarajevo suburb Ilidža in 1893 by Austro-Hungarian authorities during construction of an agricultural school. The area’s richness in flint was no doubt attractive to Neolithic man, and the settlement appears to have flourished. The most stunning aspects of the settlement are the unique ceramics and pottery designs which identified the Butmir people as a unique culture. This was largely responsible for the International congress of archeologists and anthropologists meeting in Sarajevo in 1894.

The next prominent inhabitants of Sarajevo were the Illyrians. The ancient people that considered most of the West Balkans as their homeland had several key settlements in the region, mostly around the river Miljacka and Sarajevo valley. The Illyrians in the Sarajevo region belonged to the tribe “Daesitates”, a war-like bunch who were the last to resist Roman occupation. Their defeat to the Roman emperor Tiberius in 9 a.d. marks the start of Roman rule in the region. The Romans never built up the region of modern day Bosnia that much, however it is known that the Roman colony of Aquae Sulphurae existed on top of present day Ilidža, and was the most important settlement of the time.
Middle Ages
During the Middle Ages Sarajevo was part of the Bosnian province of Vrhbosna near the traditional center of the kingdom. Though a city called Vrhbosna existed, the exact settlement of Sarajevo at this time is debated. During the high middle ages various documents make note of a place called “Tornik” in the region. By all indications however, “Tornik” was a very small xafsplace surrounded by a proportionally small village not considered very important by Ragusan merchants.

Others meanwhile say that Vrhbosna was a major city located in the middle of modern day Sarajevo. Indeed, Papal documents say that in 1238, a Cathedral to Saint Paul was built in the city. Even disciples of the famous Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius had stopped by the region, establishing a church at “Vrelobosna”. Whether this city was indeed located at modern day Sarajevo or not, an important city called Vrhbosna did indeed exist at the time and the region was of great importance.
Early Ottoman Era
Sarajevo as we know it today was founded by the Ottoman Empire in the 1450s upon conquering the region, with 1461 typically used as the city’s founding date. The first Ottoman governor of Bosnia, Isa-Beg Ishaković, transformed whatever cluster of villages there was there into a city and state capitol by building a number of key objects, including a mosque, a closed xafsplace, a public bath, a hostel, and of course the governor’s castle (“Saray”) which gave the city its present name. The mosque was named “Carova Džamija” (the Tsar’s Mosque) in honor of the Sultan Mehmed II. With the improvements Sarajevo quickly grew into the largest city in the region. Many Christians converted to Islam at this time.

Under the wise leadership of people such as Gazi Husrev-beg (the city’s greatest donor who built most of what is now the Old Town) Sarajevo grew at a rapid rate. Sarajevo became known for its large xafsplace and numerous mosques, which by the middle of the 16th century were over a hundred in number. At its height, Sarajevo was the biggest and most important Ottoman city in the Balkans after Istanbul itself. By 1660, the population of Sarajevo was estimated to be over 80,000. Comparatively, Belgrade in 1838 had a mere 12,963 inhabitants, and Zagreb as late as 1851 had a lowly 14,000 people. Things went mostly downhill for Sarajevo from there.
Late Ottoman Era
In 1699 prince Eugene of Savoy led a succesfull raid on Sarajevo. After his men looted all that they could, the city was set to the torch. In a mere day, nearly the whole city was destroyed except for a handful of neighborhoods, some mosques, and the orthodox church. Numerous other fires weakened the city as well, so that by 1807 it only had some 60,000 residents (although this was still considerably more than New York City at the time).

In the 1830s the area around the city was ground to several battles of the Bosnian rebellion, led by Husein Gradaščević. Today, a major city street is named “Dragon of Bosnia” in his honor. The rebellion however, failed, and the crumbling Ottoman state remained in control of Bosnia for several more decades.
Habsburg Empire
In 1878, Bosnia was occupied by Austria-Hungary. Architects and engineers who endeavored to rebuild Sarajevo as a modern European capital rushed to the city. They were unexpectedly aided by a fire that burned down a large part of the central city area (čaršija). This has resulted in a unique blend of the remaining Ottoman city xafs and contemporary western architecture. Sarajevo hosts some shiny examples of Secession and Pseudo-Moorish styles that date from this period.

The Austria-Hungarian period was one of great development for the city as the Western power brought its new acquisition up to the standards of the Victorian age. Various factories and other buildings were built at this time, and a large number of institutions were both Westernized and modernized. For the first time in history, Sarajevo’s population began writing in Latin script.
In the event that triggered the World War I, Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo on 28 June, 1914 by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. Anti-Serb violence flared up throughout the city, although Bosniak religious leaders urged restraint and even personally gave refuge to some Serb families.
History of Sarajevo in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
After World War I Sarajevo became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Though it held some political importance, as the center of first the Bosnian region and then the Drinska Banovina, it was not treated with the same attention or considered as significant as it was in the past. Outside of today's national bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, virtually no significant contributions to the city were made during this period.

During World War II the Kingdom of Yugoslavia put up a very inadequate defense. Following a German bombing campaign, Sarajevo was conquered by the Ustase Croatian fascist Independent State of Croatia. Many of the city's Serbs and Jews were taken at this time and killed in the Holocaust bringing a sad end to the prominence of Sarajevo's Jewish community. In 1941 the atrocities committed by the Ustase were strongly condemned by groups of Sarajevo's citizens.
Modern Sarajevo
The history of modern Sarajevo begins with the declaration of independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina, from Yugoslavia The city becomes the capital of the new state, as the local division of the Yugoslav People's Army establishes itself on the surrounding mountains. That day, massive peace protests take place. In the midst of the largest one, a protestor named Suada Dilberović is shot by unidentified gunmen from a nearby skyscraper.

The following three years found Sarajevo being the center of the longest siege in the history of modern warfare (See: Siege of Sarajevo). The city was held without electricity, heating, water, and medical supplies. During this whole time, the surrounding Serb forces shelled the city. An average of 329 shell impacts occurred per day, with a high of 3,777 shell impacts on July 22, 1993.

Asides from the economic and political structures that were destroyed, the besieger targeted numerous cultural sites. Thus places such as the Gazi Husrev-Beg Mosque, Cathedral of Jesus' Heart, and the Jewish cemetery were damaged, while places like the old City Hall and the Olympic museum were completely destroyed. For foreigners an event that defined the cultural objectives of the beseigers occurred during the night of August 25, 1992, the intentional shelling and utter destruction with incendiary shells of the irreplaceable Bosnia National and University Library, the central repository of Bosnian written culture, and a major cultural center of all the Balkans. Among the losses were about 700 manuscripts and incunabula and a unique collection of Bosnian serial publications, some from the middle of the 19th century Bosnian cultural revival. Libraries all over the world cooperated afterwards to restore some of the lost heritage, through donations and e-texts, rebuilding the Library in cyberspace.

It is estimated that 12,000 people were killed and another 50,000 wounded during the course of the siege. Through all this time however, the enemy forces were unable to decisively capture the city thanks to the heroic defense of the government army inside it. Following the Dayton Accords and a period of stabilization, the Bosnian government declared the siege officially over on February 29, 1996.

The next several years were a period of heavy reconstruction. During the siege, nearly every building in the city was damaged. Ruins were present throughout the city, and bullet holes were very common. Land mines were also located in the surroundings.

Thanks to foreign aid and domestic dedication, the city began a slow path to recovery. By 2003, there were practically no ruins in the city and bullet holes had become a rarity. Sarajevo was hosting numerous international events once again, such as the extremely successful Sarajevo Film Festival, and launched bids to hold the Winter Olympic Games in the city in the not so distant future.

Today Sarajevo is one of the fastest developing cities in the region. Various new modern buildings are being built, significantly the Bosmal City Center, which upon completion will be the tallest skyscraper in the Balkans. A new highway was recently completed between Sarajevo and the city of Visoko. The near-future for Sarajevo is hoped to hold continued development of the city, including construction of impressive modern buildings and population growth. If current growth trends continue, the Sarajevo metropolitan area should return to its pre-war population by 2020, with the city following soon after. At its current pace, Sarajevo won’t surpass the million resident mark until the second half of the 21st century. The most widely accepted and pursued goal is for the city to hold the Winter Olympics in 2014, and if that bid fails perhaps in 2018 or 2022.

08.02.2006.

About Sarajevo!!!

The capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the south-central part of the country southwest of Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Built on the site of an ancient settlement, it fell to the Turks in 1429 and passed to Austria-Hungary in 1878. The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife here on June 28, 1914, triggered the outbreak of World War I. After the war Sarajevo was incorporated into Yugoslavia. It became the capital of independent Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992. Population: 696,000.


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